In Switzerland, the rst city to acquire a nursery was Basel, thus become the leader in the establishment of this kind of infrastructure, Switzerland was industrialised early on, and its industries relied on, female labour. Hier finden Sie als Berufsbildner/in detaillierte Informationen über die betriebliche Umsetzung der Bildungsverordnung FaBe in Graubünden. Widerstand gegen Fremdenhass. (2018); the lecture at the University for Seniors in Schaffhausen (2018); the keynote at the Summer University of the Social Democratic Party, of Switzerland in Chandolin (2017); the presentation at the ‘Fribourg, and 2018) and at the ‘Colloquium in Contemporary and Eastern, European History’ at the University of Ber, Switzerland as a Straggler in Relation to Gender Equality, ‘As If I Had Made a Journey Back in Time’, Cooking and Sewing Courses for Girls, Geometry for Boys, Bring to the Fore Not Only Personal, But Also Structural, The Intersection of Discrimination and Privileges, The Relationship Between Spatial and Social Change, Migration and the Development of Nurseries, The Normalising Effect of an Infrastructure, Male Staff Members with a so-Called Migrant Background, Switzerland as a Pioneer—And What Lies Behind It, The Oft-Omitted Impact of These ‘Foreign’ Students, Feminist Forerunners Are not Unequivocal Heroines of History, The First Female Full Professor in Switzerland—Born in the, The First Extraordinara in Romandie—Born in the Russian, The First Extraordinara in German-Speaking, Female Suffrage in Switzerland and Its Relation to Migration, The First Formal Association Promoting Political and Legal, Unseen Democratic Decits in the Supposed Heartland of, Equal Rights Presented as Being Endangered by Migration, Migration and the Creation of New Ideas and Practices, Changing the Perspective Under Which Our Past Is T, the defects of a newly adopted home country become par, ble. For them, ‘[m]igration, therefore, does not always imply, empowerment and emancipation, but also generates new forms of social, those migrations that benet the receiving society. Sozialgeschichte und Arbeiterbewegung, 1848–1998, 1997, 155–161. Students represent a significant. Auswertung eines Dokumentes aus einem sozialpädagogischen Tätigkeitsbereich, Krippen ‘sind grundsätzl. the largest group of immigrants in Switzerland. 39, 2 (2013), 183–200; Mimi Sheller and John Urry, The. There, they would stay, with their heads uncovered, leaving them exposed to the scorching rays. der Frau in sozialer, sittlicher und pädagogischer Beziehung, revolution. Simone Bleuer and Barbara, Miller are currently investigating relations, interdependencies and contact zones between, Switzerland and colonial Zimbabwe on the basis of the Catholic Swiss Bethlehem Mission, sionaries moved to the US around the middle of the nineteenth century to proselytise the. permission directly from the copyright holder. Schweizer Ortstermine in Sachen Sklaverei, What we see here is a prototypical situation in which the. Donna R. Gabaccia, Gender and Migration, in Ness, Simone Lässig and Swen Steinberg, Knowledge on the Move: New Approaches, Helma Lutz and Kathy Davis, Biographische Grenzüberschreitungen und fem. A somewhat different picture is drawn in the resear, as well highly ambivalent. Alexandra Kollontai, Alexandra Kollontay, Führende Frauen Europas. had been born in Saint Petersburg. Vie profession-, Bildungsplan. , Zürich: Limmat Verlag 2013, 132–141, 139. are good reasons not to equate wage labour per se with ‘emancipation’, especially from a perspective critical of capitalism. And they would, make it possible to capture the political impact of everyday occur. My . The division of work within these families thus differed from, like the right to immigrate intersect with specic forms of discriminations. She was charged with being a rootless cosmopolitan and sentenced to, death. We do not know how she experienced this stay in, London. In addition, the alleged effects of mothers’ working on children’s health, for instance, in no other region of Switzerland did one see so many deaf, done by the women, who would often carry the heaviest bur, their backs uphill and downhill even on the day of their parturition, to, the clumsiness of the midwives, and to bad childcare in general. It is quite well-known, that the experience of migration can sometimes also lead to an increased, this book, the existence of two genders is not questioned. Fremde Länder zu gehen.’ Notizen zur Emigration der Tessiner in der frühen Neuzeit, XVI–XIX), Col bastone e la bisaccia per le strade d‘Europa. , Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press 2011, 97. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published, This Palgrave Pivot imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature, The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland, For Anna and Vian—and for everyone who cared for them while, My special thanks for their help in drafting this book go to Cenk. She was not aware of any other politicians with dual. to keep family maintenance costs as low as possible. For instance, it was only in 1970 that divorce was introduced in, female suffrage, wage equality, or a family law involving equal duties and, responsibilities—had been introduced years, in some cases even decades, before the law had been included in the Italian Constitution of 1948 as a, result of Lina Merlin’s work in the constituent assembly. Bankowski, Brang, Goehrke, and Zimmermann, Zuucht und Wirkungsstätte von Slaven im 19. und 20. Ottilia Sutter belonged to one of the most well-known local families. Potentiel. information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. These findings suggest that encouraging caregivers to reflect on their interactions with the children in their care fosters caregivers' ability to see from the child's perspective in an open and accepting way. replace some local rulers—women were thereafter excluded from most. . potential for new social and political congurations. Many factors that, Delia Krieg-Trujillo, Migrant women between concernment, participation and self-de-. Feminist authors argue that women’s equal access to sources of income outside family relations is key to their citizenship. Für die Ausbildung von Lernenden im Betrieb müssen Berufsbildnerinnen und Berufsbildner über eine berufspädagogische Qualifikation verfügen (Art. , mainly on a visit to a centre for basic military training and the, The following statement from a discussion in the Swiss parlia. In their, wills, the two friends had nominated each other as heiresses, and both, Politik. On the other, movement describes the, desire for change and the organisations and alliances of people working, change that this book analyses. Such a view has been contested by arguing that women continued, to participate in Nigeria’s political life. This question will, when. In fact, there is no straightforward distinction between, ‘locals’ and ‘non-locals’—nor should such an approach be taken, to imply that there was ever something like a pristine, stable world, which was then suddenly affected by migration. In 1953, shortly after the death of Stalin, she was released. so-called poor schools, handicrafts were established as a school subject, from the eighteenth century onwards. Lavoro, famiglia, trasformazioni culturali nel secondo dopoguerra. These falsely accused parents are left to deal with the consequences, such as loss of employment opportunities. Andreina De Clementi, and Giovani e sole, della ricostruzione. Its reporting focused. Either way, takes place under very problematic conditions should of course not be, negated. It wasn’t just my mother who noticed this. for the development of this kind of infrastructure. The whole family had to become natural-, ised again, a humiliating and costly procedure for them. Badly made coffee, an inadequately cooked or misprepared, meal, an unmade bed, a hole in a stocking or gown are factors that can, push a country down more than much of what a higher theor. founding event for a female suffrage association. Dieser Kurs ist speziell für Berufsbildnerinnen und Berufsbildner konzipiert, welche Die, In 2015, 2000 people started apprenticeships, With respect to the background of male apprentices in nurser-, Occupations that are considered as typically female are generally. This chapter provides a foundation for the case chapters in this book which variously illustrate the kinds of insights yielded by exploring education and professional practice through the lens of practice architectures. You do not have permission under this license to. teen leading members of the former ‘Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee’. Institutions for unattended children from three to six, years were established as early as 1828. they are labelled as wage squeezers and strike-breakers. home between 1885 and 1914. In particular, before 1964, it was often not possible for ‘migrants’ to. Here, we see that great importance can be attributed to an experience of. Studien zur neueren Gesellschaftsgeschichte. Here I will name, only a short selection: André Holenstein, Patrick Kur. Elisabeth Pletscher, auf selbsterlebte ‘Emanzipation der Frau’, Mitteilungen des Kantonsschulverein Trogen, In 2004, Julia Nentwich conducted a series of in-depth interviews. relationships built up between the local population and the newcomers. The political, economic, and social con-, ditions under which migration takes place depend on how past and pres-, ent migration is perceived. In, peers have about four times worse chances of nding an apprentice-, a training position in certain specic professional elds. Uomini che partono, donne. Alleinernährer und Hausfrau’. Festschrift für Claudia Honegger zum 60. So much for the space of, recognition that is granted to important women in the Swiss capital. nists who were part of the West German emancipation of women. In 1975, Italy, instituted a family law that abolished the legal status of the man as head, equal partners. This was not done because mainstream values had changed, but because there was a practical need for such services. Lap bestanden 2020 aargau LAP-Feier 2019 - baumeister verband aargau - Wir stellen . torians, but also social scientists studied such questions, see, for example, Mark James Miller, See, for example, Werner G. Zimmermann, Asyl in der Schweiz. These were often opposed to those of the men, and, only collectively could they hold their own. However, in the boom years after the Second W, prominent issue in Switzerland. Evgeny, At the Intersection of Modernities: Migrants as. of a mother living in Cameroon and a Swiss father. Gender and Class in T. , Berkeley: University of California Press 2005. In 1975, Italy, instituted a family law that abolished the legal status of the man as head, equal partners. the post-war period, rising wages and family allowances in Switzerland, did not result in a decrease in the number of nurseries—quite to the, As is the case with any form of historical change, various causes, more normal phenomenon in Switzerland. Nina Glick Schiller and Noel B. Salazar, Regimes of Mobility Across the Globe. Moreover, the name she chose for the organisation she, founded in order to ght for equal rights, the, idea of establishing clubs providing specialised reading also derived, Marie Goegg-Pouchoulin’s diverse experience of migration was far from a, unique case. lage. founding event for a female suffrage association. Later, my mother was elected, to the local school board for eight years and to the cantonal parliament, for twelve years. ‘Modernization’ and Welfare State. August 1958 (1958), 4–5. It brings together a, set of case studies, rendering visible their entanglements, and highlight, ing how the different examples are ‘both specic to and repr, standing of migration and its relation to sociopolitical innovation in, of migration and social–political change. In German-speaking Switzerland, the contribution to costs made by, parents is generally considerably higher today (2/3 of the full costs). and to serve as a means of stabilising a class society. Here, my father had grown up. Entstehung und Entwicklung, Froebel and English Education: Perspectives on the, , Basel: Historisches Museum 2010, 15–23, 16. was the rst female assistant at the History Depar, of Basel and the rst person in Switzerland to hold a chair for the history, oured Nadeschda Suslowa as a pioneer in the ght for women’s access. not uncommon among working female academics. It, would therefore be interesting to study more binational cases in which, At this point, we turn to emigration from Switzerland and its associ-, ated gender effects. Even if the history of female suf-, frage in Switzerland is well documented in many respects, its relation to, migration has never been systematically analysed. from everyone enrolling at the University of Zurich. Emphasis on feminization is part of the problematization of migration. Chamorel therefore supported a vote about the introduction of female, suffrage, but not female suffrage per se. I want to end this study by provoking readers’ thoughts through the lens of Chinese feminism. Even if the history of female suf-, frage in Switzerland is well documented in many respects, its relation to, migration has never been systematically analysed. in der Basler Mission im Kontext der frühen ökumenischen Bewegung (1901–1928), Linda Ratschiller is currently working on a PhD project at the University of Fribourg, that analyses how the Basel Mission shaped knowledge of hygiene both abroad and at. If, on the other hand, we start not from speculation, but from what is, given, what do we see when we look with a different perspective at what, happened? She was also the initia-, tor of the petition that successfully opened the doors for women at the. A Convergence of Lives. Franziska Rogger and Monika Bankowski-Züllig, Europa blickt auf uns! Leimgruber, Demokratische Rechte auf Nicht-Staatsbürger ausweiten, in Abbt and Rochel. Elisabeth wrote in 1973: ‘Personally, I have recently, been demoted from a full-citizen in the Canton of Zurich to a 2/3 citi-. Two experiences of, tion—and such internal migration is often neglected in historical research—, from one of the biggest cities in Switzerland to a rural area, which led to an, intensive experience of discrimination. Franziska Rogger and Monika Bankowski-Züllig, Europa blickt auf uns! A transfer to the wife’s, account was said to be impossible, even if the refund concerned our joint taxation (I work, in our village, my mother explained that in her home city, with children who went to work was not considered a bad mother, a, of northern Italy, it was more common than in Switzerland for women, implemented already when she was a child. of the Male Breadwinner Model (2017), in: tion/318745017_Family_Policies_and_the_Weakening_of_the_Male_Breadwinner_Model, Francesco Giudici and Reto Schumacher, Erwerbstätigkeit von Müttern in der. In the federal referendum on this law in 1985, more than half of, Swiss men still rejected the reform, and the new law was only adopted, that remained in force until 1988, a married woman needed the consent, of her husband if she wanted to work and the male head of the family, had the right to choose where the family would live, even if such pro-, visions were often no longer put into practice towards the end. für Frauenfragen, Eidgenössische Drucksachen und Materialzentrale 1979, 19. Jahrhundert, In this context, see Efremkin. Another example that shocked my mother concerned the didac-, tic content of schoolwork itself. Early female academics, were, in fact, regularly at the forefront of feminist thought, and it was, often the case that the women’s student association was a veritable train-. Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics, was new, the awareness that categories intersected was not: Marlou Schrover and Deirdre, M. Moloney, Introduction. , Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften 2010, 197–219. in the cradle by pigs, or at least seriously injured by them. It can be stigmatising to attach someone to a ‘migrant identity’, and highly problematic to ‘migrantise’ people who have long since, the essentialising of identities, I put the term ‘migrant’ in single quo, tation marks. In what follows, see Jean-Jacques Dreifuss and Natalia Tikhonov, Lina Stern (1878–, 1968): Physiologin und Biochemikerin, erste Professorin an der Universität Genf und, In 1909, nine years before Lina Stern, the philosopher Anna Esther, Pavlovna Tumarkin, of Jewish origin and born in 1875 in what is now, Belarus, had become an extraordinara at the University of Bern. Many other elds would be worth-, toriographical discourses which predominantly frame migration as a, problem to be tackled neglect the historical evidence for sociopolitical. Krippenbericht 1985, No. This is structural discrimination!’, My mother also mentioned the case of a Swiss family friend who. eigner’, the wife would at that time automatically become a Swiss citizen. Über den Beitrag des. Without this book (and especially the chapter written by Verena, Mock and Renate Bräuniger), my comments on the introduction of, women’s voting rights in Appenzell would not have been possible in this, form. Sie hat wenige Kontaktmöglichkeiten mit der Aussenwelt, obschon. In what follows, see Hanspeter Strebel and Kathrin Barbara Zatti, brauchen Zeit’. Thanks, ence, works, literary papers, iconographic documents, and press clippings, are preserved in the Swiss National Librar, The scientic, political, social, and cultural potential for innovation, of the research done by these early female academics has barely been, female professors would likely be highly rewarding. Problematization creates inflated ideas about threats through extensive or overdone media attention, rapidly succeeding media reports, exaggeration of numbers, costs and consequences, and expansion to other problems. Potenziale, The ‘migrant’ is a category not only excluded from celebratory concepts such as transnationalism and cosmopolitanism, but also increasingly spoken of as a victim. She answered: “But why not? that post-war migration policies reinforced traditional gender roles. share adapted material derived from this chapter or parts of it. / 01.12. The proposed term ‘economic citizenship’ is used to examine experiences and strategies of fifty-seven skilled migrant women from Latin America, the Middle East, and South East Europe when trying to access positions in the Swiss labour market corresponding to their professional qualifications. Südafrika nirgends. For instances, in a forthcoming book, entitled, scholarship to new norms and knowledge in various areas of political,, der innovation as a subform of sociopolitical innovation in relation to the, emergence, implementation or dissemination of new forms of life in dif-, ferent areas of society, but always with reference to a change in gender, I strongly dissociate myself from another use of the concept ‘social, innovation’, namely when it becomes ‘a convenient buzzword to for-. Neue Schweizerische Illustrierte Zeitung 4. On the other hand, they, had published the work of a classmate who had participated in the com-, petition a year earlier, although it was much more subject specic and, less readable (on the topic of the grammar of verbs in the Appenzell dia-, lect). In 1949, she was incarcerated and spent. that women’s suffrage would eventually be introduced in Switzerland, and that only here it might not be possible because of the cantonal, stood. Festschrift für Rudolf Braun zum 60. Le relatif manque d'extension des écoles maternelles s'explique par les appuis légaux accordés aux traditions qui sont un caractère spécifique de la famille suisse et à une vie religieuse qui, tout en mettant l'accent sur le rôle de la famille dans le développement précoce du sens social, restreint le rôle des pouvoirs publics. Sibylle Hardmeier, Neue Mobilisierungsstrategien und die Petition von 1929, in SVF, Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, cal discourses which predominantly frame migration as a problem to be, tackled, neglect the historical evidence for sociopolitical innovation that, can, at times, result from international, transnational, internal, and even, indirect experiences of migration. and to serve as a means of stabilising a class society. in den 1970er Jahren, in Morawek and Krenn. This is a reliable sign that children of all social classes. This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons,, By choosing this concept, which is today usually positively, 140 (1989), 139–167, 140. are perceived as ‘foreigners’ (e.g. In showing how migration generates, gender innovation in different settings, this study combines a histori, cal perspective with a discussion of timely issues. was pathologised, both in the colonial regions and in Europe itself. Even though the term, , Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press 2013, 7–54, 13. De facto haben heute aber in diesem Theater der nationalen Eitelkeit bloß die Schauspieler gewechselt, die Rollen sind geblieben. situation, I argue that we need to transform the connotations of the term, For researchers investigating the effect of migration on the ‘estab, lished’ population, it will at times be necessary in their analysis to sep, arate out ‘migrants’ from the ‘rest of the society’, knowing that this. Stroemfeld 2007, 151–168; and Heinrich Barth. Akdoganbulut, Sarah Baumann, Simone Bleuer, Kijan Espahangizi, Marcel Falk, Hans Fässler, Donna Gabaccia, Hansjörg Höchner, Paola, Höchner-Gallicani, Rohit Jain, Chad Jorgenson, Elisabeth Joris, Sherry. Savoirsocial a) Alle Lernenden bekommen 1 persönlichen Ordner. Papers in Honour of. with children of preschool age has, however, almost tripled since 1980. In fact, since, it was in Paris that the rst public nursery was established in 1844, it can, not be ruled out that people coming to Switzerland from places where, nurseries had been created may have acted as brokers in the transnational, already at that time ‘foreign’ children were placed in nurseries more often. ‘from hundreds of thousands to tens of thousands’ by 2015 (Mulley and Sachrajda 2011). During Tilo Frey’s term of ofce, which lasted until 1975, she. In, an interview, she recounted the following incident: ‘Once, when I was. black mourning clothes worn by some Italian widows and the fact that. Zwischen Hausrat und Rathaus. Nina Glick Schiller and Noel B. Salazar, Regimes of Mobility Across the Globe. This can be shown, for instance, in a report published in a Swiss magazine, racy’, it is reported that—in the context of the imminent independence—, an aid organisation (the later NGO Helvetas) had invited twelve Nigerian, students to Switzerland to teach them about democracy. Dieser stellt den Hauptord-ner dar. to reject it in the popular vote for men. (K3) For, instance, even though Italians were seen as causing a religious imbal-, ance in Switzerland, the image of the Italians was not reduced to religion, and in fact oscillated between Italians as associated with either conserv-, atism or communism. It is found that traditional ideas about gender roles, discourses about ethnic difference, and discriminatory migration policies intersect to create boundaries for skilled migrant women in accessing upper segments of the Swiss labour market. migration as rst and foremost a ‘problem’. Contemporaries who visited these areas described this in very negative, terms and often claimed that, in the absence of men, the whole commu-. Elisabeth Pletscher, auf selbsterlebte ‘Emanzipation der Frau’, Mitteilungen des Kantonsschulverein Trogen, In 2004, Julia Nentwich conducted a series of in-depth interviews. For instance, it has been showed, that in the USA, African-American mothers were more than twice as likely to be employed, New York: Oxford University Press 1999, The same applies to women ‘migrants’ to the. For example, in a study done on the situation of Italian women in Switzerland, the, authors identify important changes in gender relations for Italian couples, living in Switzerland: ‘In other words, emigration stimulates processes of, emancipation. In showing how migration generates, gender innovation in different settings, this study combines a histori, cal perspective with a discussion of timely issues. Eine soziologische Untersuchung der Lebens- und, A Mother’s Job: The History of Day Care, 1890–1960, , Zürich: Chronos 2005, 257–265. to keep family maintenance costs as low as possible. Bevölkerungsentwicklung und Bevölkerungspolitik 1945–1976, Arbeitssituation italienischer Frauen in der Schweiz, Levy, Die Stellung der Frau in Familie und Gesellschaft. ‘Krimskrams’. In more rural Valais, the, ing terms: ‘At the beginning of the century, the canton was hit by tuber-, culosis. Sometimes, they demolished his hut or plastered it with mud. This is an aspect that has so far been overlooked. for coordinating different nurseries, 25 July 2016. Her teaching qualities having, been recognised, she became an extraordinary pr, etry in 1938. Moreover, they also wanted to rectify the lack of qualied maids, as well as to pro-, fessionalise and, at the same time, upgrade the status of domestic and, do with the idea that Swiss homes should be prevented from being over-, run with ‘foreign’ maids. Pierre Bourdieu, Die biographische Illusion, In what follows, see Anne Honer, Das Explorative Interview: zur Rekonstruktion der. Encore que les initiatives en cours soient pour une grande part privées et volontaires, on préconise une intensification des investigations concernant le développement de la première enfance ainsi qu'une activité accrue des pouvoirs publics dans l'application de leurs résultats. ePAK’s worldwide staff and our world class manufacturing team have been honored with the opportunity to support our excellent customers. Mesmer, , testies to the extent to which had been inspired by the, Crossing Frontiers: Cultural Exchange and Conict. As a result of. Looking at history through the lens. is the subject of the report is listed on the central register. März 1958. Mattia Pelli, ‘On n’avait peur de rien.’ Immigrés et grève à la Monteforno. Despite the importance for Heim-Vögtlin of her Russian role model, in 1870, together with ve other female students, she urged the rec-, torate to restrict the conditions for the admission of women, fearing an, inux of politicised Russians who, in her eyes, would damage the image, thereafter, a new university regulation required a Baccalaureate certicate. / 07.06. long-term impact of colonialism on today’s handling of migration, see Francesca Falk, Eine postkoloniale Perspektive auf die illegalisierte Immigration in der Schweiz. If we, look at ‘migrant’ families, the limitations of this statement immediately, Whereas over the past decades, ‘dozens of publications have thus, appeared that started out by saying that the eld of gender and migra-, true today. (Wieder)Herstellung von Heteronormativität. In this context, Regina, Römhild rightly pointed out that only when research focuses on the, entire social spectrum of migration can it show that social and polit, ical inequality prevails not only between ‘migrants’ and ‘locals’, but, Regina Römhild, Jenseits ethnischer Grenzen.